• Mathematical Applications in Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources (One Credit).

    (a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 9-11. Recommended prerequisite: a minimum of one credit from the courses in the Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources cluster.

    (b)  Introduction. To be prepared for careers in agriculture, food, and natural resources, students must acquire technical knowledge in the discipline as well as apply academic skills in mathematics. Students should apply knowledge and skills related to mathematics, including algebra, geometry, and data analysis in the context of agriculture, food, and natural resources. To prepare for success, students are afforded opportunities to reinforce, apply, and transfer their knowledge and skills related to mathematics in a variety of contexts.

    (c)  Knowledge and skills.

    (1)  The student demonstrates mathematics knowledge and skills required to solve problems related to the agriculture, food, and natural resources industries. The student is expected to:

    (A)  demonstrate use of relational expressions in agribusiness, animal, environmental service, food products and processing, natural resources, plant, and power, structural, and technical systems such as equal to, not equal, greater than, and less than;

    (B)  apply statistical and data analysis to solve problems in agribusiness, animal, environmental service, food products and processing, natural resources, plant, or power, structural, and technical systems;

    (C)  analyze mathematical problem statements for missing or irrelevant data essential to agribusiness, animal, environmental service, food products and processing, natural resources, plant, and power, structural, and technical systems;

    (D)  construct and analyze charts, tables, and graphs from functions and data generated in agribusiness, animal, environmental service, food products and processing, natural resources, plant, and power, structural, and technical systems;

    (E)  analyze data using measures of central tendency when interpreting operational documents in agribusiness, animal, environmental service, food products and processing, natural resources, plant, and power, structural, and technical systems; and

    (F)  use mathematic operations and knowledge of relationships to solve problems inherent to systems of agriculture and agribusiness such as the calculation of gallons of water from inches of rain, acres of ground water, liquid and gaseous volumes, and conversion of units; calculation of caloric value, parts per million of restricted ingredients, conversion of measurements, and United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) grades; and estimation of wildlife populations, pulpwood yields, and calculation of mapping data.

    (2)  The student demonstrates mathematics knowledge and skills to solve problems related to agribusiness systems and career opportunities. The student is expected to:

    (A)  use mathematic operations and knowledge of relationships to solve daily problems inherent to agribusiness systems such as record keeping, profit/loss statements, income statements, capital asset inventories, insurance, risk management, lease agreements, loan documentation, employee payroll, benefits, investments, tax documentation, and real estate contract documentation;

    (B)  demonstrate knowledge of algebraic applications linear and exponential functions related to agribusiness systems concepts such as simple interest, compound interest, maturity value, tax rates, depreciation, production analysis, market trends, investments, and price determination; and

    (C)  demonstrate use of statistical and data analysis for the evaluation of agribusiness systems such as the collection of demographic, production, consumption, weather, market data for analysis through counts, percentages, central tendency, and prediction. Data is to be reported numerically or graphically on concepts such as pricing, market trends, commodity prices, exports and imports, supply and demand, and production yields.

    (3)  The student demonstrates mathematics knowledge and skills to solve problems related to animal systems and career opportunities. The student is expected to:

    (A)  use mathematic operations and knowledge of relationships to solve problems inherent to animal systems such as the calculation of purchasing and marketing, housing requirements, conversion of units, average daily gain, topical and injectable medications, USDA grade calculation, feeding schedules, volumes, production cost, stocking rates, breeding, and gestation;

    (B)  demonstrate knowledge of algebraic applications related to animal systems concepts such as ration calculation using the Pearson Square, percent homozygosity, heritability, USDA grade calculation, gene frequency, cost per unit of nutrient, and weaning weight ratio;

    (C)  use geometric principles to solve problems inherent to animal systems such as square footage for housing requirements; acreage calculation for normal and irregular shaped pastures; the use of right triangles for perpendicular cross fencing; calculation of feed bin volume based upon shape such as cylinder, cone, cube, or pyramid; and housing volume calculations for ventilation; and

    (D)  demonstrate use of statistical and data analysis in animal systems such as the collection and analysis of production data to be reported numerically or graphically on concepts such as birth weight, weaning weights, days to market weight, expected progeny differences, feed efficiencies, birth type, litter size, presence or absence of genetic abnormality, milk production, sow productivity index, and veterinary costs or records.

    (4)  The student demonstrates mathematical knowledge and skills to solve problems related to environmental service systems and career opportunities. The student is expected to:

    (A)  demonstrate knowledge of algebraic applications to create solutions to problems related to environmental service systems concepts such as the calculation of acre feet of water, water volume in ponds, water well volume, water pressure friction loss, flow rate, total head pressure, pump efficiency, soil solids volume, and soil degree of saturation;

    (B)  use geometric principles to solve problems inherent to environmental service systems such as acreage calculation for normal and irregular shaped pastures, calculating slope of land, planning runoff drainage structures, and applying differential leveling techniques; and

    (C)  demonstrate use of statistical and data analysis in environmental service systems such as the collection and analysis of environmental data to be reported numerically or graphically on concepts such as rainfall, soil classifications, groundwater levels, recycling activities, and pollution rates.

    (5)  The student demonstrates mathematics knowledge and skills required to solve problems related to food products and processing systems and career opportunities. The student is expected to:

    (A)  demonstrate knowledge of algebraic applications related to food products and processing systems concepts such as the calculation of exponential growth of bacteria, contribution margin in processing, percentage of weight loss in packaged food, percentage of water absorption in packaged food, and microbe analysis following pasteurization;

    (B)  use geometric principles to solve problems inherent to food products and processing systems such as the calculation of packaging requirements, construction of food storage structures and containers, liquid transfer materials, and vessels design and volume; and

    (C)  demonstrate use of statistical and data analysis in food products and processing systems data to be reported numerically or graphically on concepts such as governmental regulations, hazard analysis, critical control points data, taste tests, quality assurance data, and industry packing practices.

    (6)  The student demonstrates mathematics knowledge and skills to solve problems related to natural resources systems and career opportunities. The student is expected to:

    (A)  demonstrate knowledge of algebraic applications related to natural resource systems concepts such as the calculation of mean harvest area, calibration of pesticides, and the Doyle Log Rule;

    (B)  use geometric principles to solve problems inherent to natural resource systems such as planning and construction of structures related to wildlife and fisheries management, determination of lumber volume in given tree stock, and calculation of tank volume for chemical application; and

    (C)  demonstrate use of statistical and data analysis for the evaluation of natural resource systems data to be reported numerically or graphically for resource data analysis, analysis of Geographic Information Systems and Global Positioning Systems data, analysis of weather-related data, and analysis of data related to wildlife and habitat.

    (7)  The student demonstrates mathematics knowledge and skills to solve problems related to plant systems and career opportunities. The student is expected to:

    (A)  use mathematic operations and knowledge of relationships to solve problems inherent to plant systems such as the calculation of crop yields, crop loss, grain drying requirements, grain weight shrinkage, germination rates, greenhouse heating, and cooling and fertilizer application rates;

    (B)  demonstrate knowledge of algebraic applications related to plant systems concepts such as the calculation of grain handling efficiency, harvesting capacity, crop rotation, seeding rates, fertilizer nutrient requirements, and greenhouse ventilation;

    (C)  use geometric principles for the analysis of problems inherent to plant systems such as plan grain storage structures, volume of grain storage vessels, grain handling volume, greenhouse capacity, and regular and irregular shaped planting bed size; and

    (D)  demonstrate use of statistical and data analysis in plant systems such as crop yields, Global Information Systems data, plant growth data, and climate data.

    (8)  The student demonstrates mathematics knowledge and skills to solve problems related to power, structural, and technical systems education and career opportunities. The student is expected to:

    (A)  use mathematic operations and knowledge of relationships to solve problems inherent to power, structural, and technical systems such as the calculation of gear ratio, fuel efficiency, construction costs, project layout, energy costs, unit conversions, bid preparation, and labor-related calculations;

    (B)  demonstrate knowledge of algebraic applications related to power, structural, and technical systems concepts such as the calculation of strength of magnetism, chain or belt tension, horsepower, Ohm's Law, hydraulic multiplication of force, and Mohr's Circle tensile strength test;

    (C)  use geometric principles for the evaluation of problems inherent to power, structural, and technical systems such as rafter length, land measurement, differential leveling, concrete volume, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning requirements and creation of structural drawings;

    (D)  use statistical and data analysis to evaluate power, structural, and technical systems problems such as construction cost data; equipment maintenance; heating, ventilating, and air conditioning efficiencies; engine performance; and labor costs; and

    (E)  use geometry concepts to develop and implement a plan for construction of a project such as a trailer, an agricultural structure, a storage facility, or a fence.

    (9)  The student develops an improved supervised agriculture experience program as it relates to agriculture, food, and natural resources. The student is expected to:

    (A)  plan, propose, conduct, and evaluate entrepreneurship; placement; exploratory; research, either experimental or analytical; improvement; supplementary; laboratory-based; or other identified, supervised agricultural experience as an experiential learning activity;

    (B)  apply proper record-keeping skills as they relate to a supervised experience;

    (C)  design and use a customized record-keeping system for the individual supervised experience;

    (D)  participate in youth leadership opportunities to create a well-rounded experience program in agriculture; and

    (E)  produce a challenging approach for a local program of activities in agriculture.